Abraham Peeler was born on May 23, 1904, in Greensboro, North Carolina. His father was pastor of a local Methodist church and later become president of Bennett College. He went to the Tuskegee Institute for high school, where he took up the carpentry trade. He graduated from Tuskegee in 1920 and then went on to Morehouse College in Atlanta.
Following graduation from Morehouse, Peeler was recruited by the superintendent of schools in Winston-Salem. There, he taught social studies and a physical education classes at Columbia Heights High School for a year. Peeler then moved to Greensboro to teach social sciences and coach classes at Washington High School. Around 1926, Peeler was promoted to principal at Jonesboro School. During the 1932 academic year, his last year at Jonesboro, Peeler gave his students an assignment to collect and report the stories of older relatives and neighbors who had been slaves; these student reports are now considered a valuable resource in documenting the slave experience.
Abraham Peeler moved to the J. C. Price School in 1932, and remained there for the next thirty-six years. After Peeler retired in 1969, he joined the board of the Greensboro Historical Museum. He continued to collect African American artifacts and take photographs of landmarks indicative of local African American history, as he had throughout his life. Peeler was also a member of a group of local African-American amateur photographers called the FAWM Photography Club through the 1970s. Abraham Peeler died on December 30, 1991.