Julius A. Fulmore was born in Robeson County, N.C., and raised on a farm in the racially diverse county. Fulmore attended a nearby small elementary school through grade seven and then rode the bus to neighboring Maxton for high school. He was awarded a work scholarship to Fayetteville Teachers College, now Fayetteville State University, from which he earned a bachelor’s degree in elementary education in 1948. He secured a teaching position in Mocksville, North Carolina, and later began taking graduate classes at night at North Carolina A&T State University.
In 1956 Fulmore accepted a teaching position at Jonesboro School in Greensboro, N.C. After three years, Fulmore was appointed principal of a small school in the southwestern section of the county. He held this position until the school closed three years later in 1962, and then served as an unofficial assistant principal at Price School. Two and a half years later, he was appointed principal of Hampton School, a formerly African American school that was desegregated during his tenure as principal. Fulmore remained principal at Hampton for eleven years, and then became the assistant superintendent for elementary education in Guilford County.