About Occupation and Independence: The Austrian Second Republic, 1945-1963
Description: The experience of the Anschluss and Nazi rule deepened the commitment of Austrians to parliamentary democracy and Austrian statehood. The electorate remained divided into three political camps—socialist/Marxist, Catholic, and nationalist/liberal—but cooperation replaced extreme political polarization. Through Allied occupation, slow economic growth, dependency on Marshall Plan, the Second Republic became a stable democracy. The major political parties strove towards ending Allied occupation and restoring a fully independent Austria. Upon the termination of Allied occupation, Austria was proclaimed a neutral country, and "everlasting" neutrality was incorporated into the Constitution on October 26, 1955.

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